Somewhere between 38,000 and almost 2.8 million non-citizens voted in the 2008 elections, according to a study published in Electoral Studies journal in 2014.
Old Dominion University professors Jesse Richman and David Earnest, the study’s co-authors, concluded that “some non-citizens participate in U.S. elections, and that this participation has been large enough to change meaningful election outcomes including Electoral College votes, and Congressional elections.”
“In spite of substantial public controversy, very little reliable data exists concerning the frequency with which non-citizen immigrants participate in United States elections. Although such participation is a violation of election laws in most parts of the United States, enforcement depends principally on disclosure of citizenship status at the time of voter registration,” Richman and Earnest note
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